1983: Digital engine electronics

Digital engine electronics (DEE) celebrated its debut in 1983 with the new naturally aspirated engine with 3.2-litre displacement. Its most important advantages were better fuel consumption, cleaner combustion and therefore maximum power output. The system worked with a shared control unit into which all the engine’s operating states were programmed. The correct injection quantity and the exact ignition point were assigned to each engine speed, each accelerator pedal position and temperature. The overrun fuel cut-off, i.e. no fuel was consumed when the engine was overrunning, and electronic idle speed control when auxiliary components were activated were useful additions provided by the digital engine electronics.  The knock control system ensured “healthy” engine operating conditions. DEE is combined with various injection systems, depending on the engine.

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1988: All-wheel drive
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1977: Charge-air cooling